vitamin d blood pressure

Recommended quotation for this text: Zhang D, Cheng C, Wang Y, Solar H, Yu S, Xue Y, et al. Impact of Vitamin D on Blood Stress and Hypertension within the Basic Inhabitants: An Replace Meta-Evaluation of Cohort Research and Randomized Managed Trials. Prev Power Dis 2020;17:190307. DOI: icon.




The impact of vitamin D supplementation on blood strain has been explored in earlier meta-analyses, however whether or not the affiliation is causal within the basic inhabitants remains to be unknown. We evaluated the affiliation comprehensively and quantitatively.


We searched PubMed and Embase for related cohort research and randomized managed trials (RCTs). We used a 2-step generalized least-squares technique to evaluate the dose–response affiliation of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and hypertension and a fixed-effects mannequin to pool the weighted imply variations (WMDs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of blood strain throughout RCTs.


We recognized 11 cohort research and 27 RCTs, with 43,320 and three,810 members, respectively. The dose–response relationship between circulating 25(OH)D ranges and hypertension threat was roughly L-shaped (Pnonlinearity = .04), suggesting that the danger of hypertension elevated considerably beneath 75 nmol/L as 25(OH)D decreased, nevertheless it remained vital over the vary of 75–130 nmol/L. Nonetheless, pooled outcomes of RCTs confirmed that there was no vital discount in systolic blood strain (WMD, −0.00 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.71) or diastolic blood strain (WMD, 0.19 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.29 to 0.67) after vitamin D intervention.


The outcomes of this meta-analysis point out that supplementation with vitamin D doesn’t decrease blood strain within the basic inhabitants. RCTs with long-term interventions and a ample variety of members who’ve low ranges of vitamin D are wanted to validate these findings.




Rising proof means that vitamin D deficiency is a widespread world downside (1). In keeping with the Institute of Drugs (IOM), vitamin D deficiency is outlined as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) stage <50 nmol/L based on the optimal concentration for skeletal health (2). Interest has increased concerning the potential health consequences of vitamin D deficiency, such as increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and Alzheimer’s disease (3–5). Although observational data have demonstrated that poor vitamin D status is associated with increased risk of hypertension (6–9), randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have provided little support for the beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure (10–13). Considering the potential residual confounding, inferring causality or reversibility of this relationship and reaching consensus from these findings is difficult. Several meta-analyses of observational studies and RCTs have been published, but results are conflicting (14–17). Golzarand et al evaluated 30 RCTs with 4,744 participants and concluded that vitamin D has a beneficial effect in subgroups of daily doses >800 IU/d, a period lower than 6 months, or older topics (14). Kunutsor et al prompt that supplementation with vitamin D considerably decreased diastolic blood strain (DBP) by 1.31 mm Hg in members with preexisting cardiometabolic circumstances (16). Nonetheless, one other meta-analysis carried out by incorporating particular person knowledge supported that vitamin D supplementation is ineffective in decreasing blood strain (15).

Taken collectively, it could be hypothesized that the elevated blood strain or threat of hypertension is partly defined by people’ baseline vitamin D standing, the pattern measurement, the intervention dose, and the follow-up period. In the meantime, contemplating that pre-existing circumstances resembling diabetes, heart problems, and kidney illness could affect the physiologic mechanism of vitamin D on blood strain, appreciable variability could exist between particular person sufferers and the overall inhabitants. Subsequently, limiting the members to the overall inhabitants could assist to discover the true affiliation hidden by the confounders. Analyzing the inhabitants as an entire somewhat than limiting analyses to sure inhabitants subgroups could assist us to discover the true affiliation hidden by confounders. As well as, outcomes from not less than 10 extra research together with 1,716 members have been printed on this subject for the reason that newest meta-analysis in 2015 (10–12,18–24).

We aimed to offer a complete and quantitative meta-analysis from the printed cohort research and RCTs on the impact of vitamin D involving hypertension threat and blood strain ranges within the basic inhabitants.




We used the PRISMA (Most popular Reporting Gadgets for Systematic Evaluate and Meta-Analyses) guidelines to carry out the meta-analysis and report the outcomes (25).

Knowledge supply and searches

We searched PubMed and Embase databases as much as June 12, 2019, for cohort research reporting an affiliation between blood 25(OH)D ranges and threat of incident hypertension and for RCTs analyzing the impact of vitamin D supplementation (alone or together with different vitamins) on blood strain. The search phrases “vitamin D” and “blood pressure” have been utilized in mixture to retrieve related data. The data have been restricted to human research, and extra research have been retrieved by means of manually looking out the references of recognized articles and related systematic critiques.

Examine choice

Two investigators (D.Z. and C.C.) reviewed the titles and abstracts independently to determine articles for probably related sources. Full-text variations have been requested to guage eligibility. To be included, the examine needed to meet the next standards: 1) adopted an RCT or a cohort examine design; 2) investigated the affiliation between vitamin D and threat of hypertension or impact of blood strain ranges; 3) included a basic inhabitants (≥18 y) somewhat than sufferers with particular ailments (eg, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart failure); and 4) offered estimates of the dangers of hypertension in not less than 3 classes of blood 25(OH)D ranges or reported steady threat estimates for the dose–response evaluation, or reported blood strain for meta-analysis of RCTs. We excluded articles in the event that they 1) measured different metabolites of vitamin D (eg, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D); 2) centered on pregnant ladies or teams with particular ailments; or 3) didn’t report blood strain at baseline/finish or the modifications after invention from baseline for trials. Inconsistencies have been resolved by means of group dialogue or adjudicated by a 3rd reviewer.

Knowledge extraction

Utilizing predefined protocols, D.Z. extracted knowledge from every examine and C.C. checked the accuracy. For cohort research, the next data was abstracted: first writer, publication yr, nation, follow-up interval, pattern measurement, age, variety of circumstances/members, classes of 25(OH)D ranges, reported threat estimates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and covariates adjusted for within the analyses. When a number of adjusted fashions have been explored, we extracted the danger ratios from the mannequin with largest variety of covariables. If the bottom 25(OH)D stage was not the reference, we recalculated the danger estimates by the tactic of Hamling et al (26). When the imply or median 25(OH)D stage per class was not reported, we assigned the worth because the midpoint of the decrease and higher sure in every class (27). If the class was open-ended, we assumed the width of interval to be the identical as within the adjoining class (27). If research reported 25(OH)D ranges in ng/mL, we transformed the values to nmol/L by multiplying by 2.5.

For RCTs, we recorded the next knowledge: examine design (pattern measurement of every group, blinding strategies, intervention/placebo kind and quantity, period of intervention, kind of vitamin D, and intervention frequency); traits of members (age, intercourse, baseline circulating 25[OH]D ranges); and baseline/finish blood strain in each intervention and placebo teams and/or blood strain modifications from baseline. If research used totally different doses of vitamin D, we extracted solely the very best dose within the evaluation. If research measured blood pressures repetitively at totally different intervals through the intervention, we included solely the blood strain values on the longest follow-up level. Makes an attempt have been made to contact corresponding authors for unavailable data.

Threat for bias evaluation

We used the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa Scale to guage the standard of particular person cohort research; the dimensions relies on 8 elements masking choice, comparability, and final result domains (28). In the meantime, we assessed the danger of bias for every trial utilizing 7 fields from The Cochrane Collaboration’s software: random sequence era, allocation concealment, blinding of members and personnel, blinding of final result evaluation, incomplete final result knowledge, selective reporting, and different bias (29). Abstract assessments for trials have been assigned as “high,” “low,” or “unclear,” in response to the danger bias in every final result. Disagreements have been resolved by means of group dialogue. Publication bias was assessed with Egger’s take a look at (30).

Knowledge synthesis and evaluation

To supply dose–response proof from all cohort research, we used the 2-step generalized least-squares technique (31). Examine-specific slope coefficients have been examined by restricted cubic splines with three knots at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the distribution of circulating 25(OH)D ranges. For the dose–response analyses of 25(OH)D, the reference class was re-scaled to 75 nmol/L, which is the cutoff worth between inadequate and ample vitamin D standing. P values for nonlinearity have been calculated through the use of the Wald χ2 take a look at, assuming the coefficient of the second spline was zero. We used the DerSimonian and Laird random results mannequin to estimate the study-specific dose–response threat, and we calculated the pooled threat of hypertension for each 25 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D ranges utilizing a random results mannequin (32).

We assessed the impact of vitamin D supplementation by the imply blood strain modifications (together with systolic blood strain [SBP] and DBP) within the intervention group minus the modifications in blood strain within the placebo group. The usual deviations (SDs) have been obtained as reported or calculated from 95% CIs, P values for t statistics, or particular person customary errors (SE) from intervention and placebo teams. If the research didn’t report blood strain modifications from baseline, we calculated the imply values through the use of blood strain after intervention minus blood strain at baseline, and the SD of modifications was obtained in accordance the next method, described within the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Evaluations of Interventions (29):





We estimated correlation by calculations from 2 research that offered full knowledge for SDbaseline, SDfinal, SDchange in each intervention and placebo teams (33,34). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 and Q statistics. We used fixed-effects fashions and forest plots to pool the weighted imply variations (WMDs) and corresponding 95% CIs of blood strain throughout research.

Predefined subgroup analyses have been carried out to discover potential impact modification and sources of heterogeneity. We additionally carried out sensitivity analyses by eradicating one examine at a time to make sure that the pooled consequence was not merely depending on one giant or particular person case. All statistics have been analyzed utilizing Stata, model 12.1 (StataCorp, LLC). Significance was set at P < .05. High  


Descriptive examine traits

The systematic search in PubMed and Embase retrieved 8,956 publications, and three extra have been recognized by guide looking out. After duplicate checking and preliminary evaluate of the titles and abstracts, 156 probably related articles have been obtained in full textual content for additional analysis. Lastly, 119 articles have been excluded and 37 publications (together with 11 cohort research in 10 publications [6–9,35–40] and 27 trials [10–13,18–24,33,34,41–54]) have been eligible for inclusion.

Eleven cohort research with 8,397 incident circumstances of hypertension and 43,320 members have been recognized from 10 publications. Excluding 1 examine carried out in Asia, most have been carried out in Europe (n = 4) and america (n = 6). The follow-up durations ranged from 1.3 to fifteen.3 years (median 5.0 years). Analyses of the standard of research yielded a median NOS rating of seven.5, 9 of which have been of top quality (rating ≥7).

Twenty-seven research have been RCTs with 3,810 members. Amongst them, 2 research included solely males, 10 included solely ladies, and 15 included each. 5 of the included trials have been carried out in Asia, 12 have been carried out in Europe, 4 have been carried out in Oceania, and the remaining 6 have been carried out in america. Imply or median baseline 25(OH)D concentrations assorted from 25.6 nmol/L to 78.0 nmol/L, and 11 research investigated the results in people with vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D deficiency, or each. 9 trials didn’t present the ultimate 25(OH)D focus in intervention arms, whereas the remaining research confirmed a considerable improve in circulating ranges of 25(OH)D in contrast with the baseline evaluation. All trials had low threat of bias for random allocation and selective reporting. There was inadequate details about allocation concealment in 5 trials and excessive threat of bias in 1 trial. One open-label trial had excessive threat of bias for blinding of members and personnel and unclear bias threat for blinding of final result evaluation (43).

Meta-analyses outcomes

Circulating 25(OH)D ranges and hypertension threat

Quantitative outcomes from meta-analyses of cohort research confirmed that the danger of incident hypertension decreased by 7% (relative threat [RR] = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.98) per 25 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D ranges, with vital heterogeneity (I2 = 61.6%, Pheterogeneity = .004). Ten research reporting RR for 25(OH)D exposures in not less than 3 ranges have been eligible for the linear pattern estimation. Outcomes from the evaluation of restricted cubic splines indicated an approximate L-shaped correlation between circulating 25(OH)D ranges and hypertension threat (Pnonlinearity = .04, Determine 1). The chance of hypertension elevated considerably beneath 75 nmol/L as 25(OH)D decreased however remained vital over the vary of 75–130 nmol/L.

Determine 1.
Nonlinear dose–response affiliation between circulating 25(OH)D ranges and hypertension threat, replace meta-analysis of cohort research of the impact of 25(OH)D ranges on hypertension within the basic inhabitants. The dashed line signifies the pooled restricted cubic spline mannequin, and the stable strains point out the 95% CIs of the pooled curve. Abbreviations: 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; CI, confidence interval. [A tabular description of this figure is available.]

Subgroup analyses indicated intercourse (male, feminine, or combined), follow-up period (≤5 y or >5 y), area (America, Europe, or Asia), variety of circumstances (<1,000 or ≥1,000), and examine high quality (excessive, medium, or low) because the potential sources of the heterogeneity (Desk 1). Nonetheless, the affiliation of 25(OH)D ranges per 25 nmol/L increment confirmed no significance in subgroups of males (RR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.85–1.00), ladies (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76–1.01), European area (RR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94–1.01), small variety of circumstances (RR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.89–1.02), and medium or low high quality of examine (RR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80–1.03). Moreover, the pooled estimates couldn't be altered considerably by eradicating one examine at a time, and we discovered no proof of publication bias by Egger’s take a look at (P = .38). Vitamin D supplementation and blood strain ranges Figures 2 and three current the forest plots for impact of vitamin D supplementation on SBP and DPB throughout the included 27 trials. General, vitamin D supplementation didn't have a big impact on SBP discount (WMD, −0.00 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.71), with proof of low heterogeneity (I2 = 41.7%, Pheterogeneity = .01). There was additionally no vital discount in DBP after intervention, and the WMD (95% CI) was 0.19 mm Hg (−0.29 to 0.67), with out proof of serious heterogeneity (I2 = 3.3%, Pheterogeneity = .42). Determine 2. Meta-analysis of impact of vitamin D supplementation on systolic blood strain, replace meta-analysis of randomized managed trials of the impact of vitamin D on blood strain within the basic inhabitants. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; WMD, weighted imply distinction. [A text description of this figure is available.]   Determine 3. Meta-analysis of impact of vitamin D supplementation on diastolic blood strain, replace meta-analysis of randomized managed trials of the impact of vitamin D on blood strain within the basic inhabitants. Abbreviation: WMD, weighted imply distinction. [A text description of this figure is available.] Desk 2 reveals the subgroup analyses of abstract WMDs in SBP and DBP. We discovered that the heterogeneity decreased in research of males, research with obese or overweight people, research with a big pattern measurement (≥200), and research with an intervention period of 6 months or longer. The results of vitamin D supplementation on SBP and DBP was nonetheless insignificant in all subgroups. In sensitivity analyses, the abstract outcomes remained related by eradicating one examine at a time. In keeping with Egger’s take a look at, we discovered no proof of publication bias in research of SBP (P = .60) and DBP (P = .07). High  

Dialogue – “vitamin d blood pressure”

This meta-analysis of cohort research prompt an inverse affiliation between 25(OH)D ranges and incident hypertension, with hypertension threat decreased by 7% per 25 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D ranges. In the meantime, abstract knowledge of RCTs indicated no proof of blood strain discount by supplementation with vitamin D, a discovering in keeping with subgroup analyses primarily based on baseline obese/overweight standing, baseline 25(OH)D stage, follow-up period, and intervention dose.

The findings from quite a few observational research have proven that ample vitamin D standing is a protecting issue for hypertension. Evaluation of Mendelian randomization additionally offered the causal proof for the impact of elevated circulating 25(OH)D ranges on decreased blood strain ranges and threat of hypertension (55). Nonetheless, our subgroup analyses of the cohort research produced inconsistent outcomes, which indicated that the quantitative knowledge failed to offer convincing proof of the protecting impact of vitamin D on hypertension. In the meantime, a lot of the interventional research didn’t present constant proof of blood strain profit from supplementing with vitamin D (11–13,21,49,50,53). Given these findings, we speculate that the useful impact noticed in cohort research could also be partly defined by the tendency that ample vitamin D ranges are intently associated to wholesome life-style or examine members being younger. It might be additionally partially due to the speculation that low 25(OH)D ranges may very well be the results of sub-health standing somewhat than a precursor of ailments. Moreover, variations exist among the many varied strategies used (ie, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; high-performance liquid chromatography; and enzymoimmunoassay, radioimmunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassays) and within the laboratories that measured 25(OH)D ranges, which might additionally affect the accuracy of the examine outcomes (56).

Related with our outcomes, earlier meta-analyses additionally confirmed no total decreasing impact of vitamin D supplementation on blood strain (14–16,57). Nonetheless, they prompt that vitamin D could present a useful impact on blood strain in particular subgroups, resembling older individuals, individuals whose dosage of vitamin D was excessive (>800 IU/d), short-term interventions (<6 months), or people with pre-existing cardiometabolic illness (14,16). A attainable purpose for this discrepancy is that the recruited populations of included research had excessive heterogeneity. Subsequently, we restricted this meta-analysis to analyses of apparently wholesome people. We excluded trials which have focused sufferers with hypertension, diabetes, heart problems, or different ailments, as a result of the identified or unknown interplay between vitamin D and antihypertensive or cardiovascular drugs could masks or attenuate the small results of blood strain discount. Difficult elements resembling baseline vitamin D standing, intervention design, or adiposity could modify or blunt the useful impact on blood strain of enhancing vitamin D ranges. An rising physique of proof helps the presence of thresholds in vitamin D standing (58). Equally, the roughly L-shaped relationship between 25(OH)D ranges and hypertension threat in our meta-analysis confirmed that hypertension threat elevated considerably beneath 75 nmol/L however remained marginally vital above 75 nmol/L, which means that topics with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency present larger response to supplementation. As well as, proof confirmed a therapeutic impact of cholecalciferol solely in vitamin D–depleted members by lowering their 24-hour blood strain by 3–4 mm Hg (59). Subsequently, we speculated that the protecting impact would solely seem in topics with low vitamin D ranges. Certainly, we categorised the research in response to their baseline vitamin D standing, however the outcomes indicated that vitamin D supplementation had no obvious impact on blood strain, no matter its baseline standing. This discovering is in accord with a latest meta-analysis that used particular person affected person knowledge (15). Nonetheless, contemplating that the variety of individuals with low vitamin D ranges could also be inadequate in our examine, additional trials are wanted to confirm this discovering. People who're taking vitamin D dietary supplements ought to accomplish that for not less than 6 months to achieve the utmost attained 25(OH)D stage (60). It's affordable to imagine that the impact of vitamin D is time-dependent. Nonetheless, our findings from subgroup analyses of RCTs prompt that response of blood strain to vitamin D is unbiased of interventional period (<6 months and ≥6 months). Similar findings have been reported (16,61). Considering these findings, we still cannot rule out that the duration of vitamin D intervention is insufficient to detect any slight but significant reduction in blood pressures, especially in the apparently healthy subjects whose normal values are less likely to be further improved. It is worth noting that until June 2019 only one RCT lasting up to 2 years was included in our study; therefore, a protective effect of longer intervention could not be studied adequately. Future RCTs with longer follow‐up duration are needed to provide in-depth insight into the long‐term benefits of vitamin D supplementation. The optimal dose for vitamin D supplementation would influence the effect on blood pressure. A 4-arm trial conducted in African Americans reported dose-dependent reductions in SBP after 3 months of cholecalciferol supplementation with 1,000 IU, 2,000 IU, and 4,000 IU per day (0.66 mm Hg, 3.4 mm Hg, and 4.0 mm Hg, respectively) (34). In addition, a meta-analysis synthesizing the results of 30 RCTs suggested that vitamin D supplementation at a dose of >800 IU/d decreased blood pressures considerably (14). Opposite to those outcomes, we didn’t discover the dose–response relationship for vitamin D on blood strain. We must always take into account the chance that the supplementary doses in most included trials could also be bigger or smaller to look at a useful impact. Additional research are wanted to discover the potential quantitative mannequin.

This meta-analysis of RCTs included 3,810 individuals from the overall inhabitants, which supplies a considerable statistical energy to detect the potential results and thereby enhances the generalizability of our findings. Nonetheless, our examine additionally accommodates a number of potential limitations. First, as a result of most research didn’t report the modifications of weight-reduction plan, solar publicity or latitudes, genetic elements, and academic standing, we’re not capable of reply the questions of whether or not these elements would modify the impact of the intervention. Second, there are a number of trials that didn’t attain sufficient energy (they have been beneath 80%) to detect any weak distinction between interventional and placebo teams due to the small pattern measurement and excessive price of noncompliance (13,20,53). As well as, though we stratified the period of follow-up (the utmost is 2.0 years) and located no vital distinction between subgroups, it stays unclear whether or not there are any long-term (>2 years) results of vitamin D to enhance blood strain ranges. Nonetheless, we could conclude that vitamin D supplementation is not going to have an effect on blood strain short-term.

The outcomes of this meta-analysis point out that supplementation with vitamin D doesn’t decrease blood strain within the basic inhabitants. On the premise of this discovering, we don’t suggest utilizing vitamin D supplementation to stop hypertension. Nonetheless, future RCTs with long-term interventions and ample pattern sizes of individuals with low vitamin D ranges are wanted to copy this discovering.




D.Z. and W.L. contributed to the conception of the unique concept. C.C., D.Z., Y.W., and H.S. looked for research and agreed on inclusion and exclusion. D.Z., C.C., and S.Y. extracted knowledge and carried out the information evaluation. D.Z., Y.X., and Y.L. drafted the manuscript. All authors have learn and authorised the manuscript.

This work was supported by the Nationwide Nature Science Basis of China (grant nos. 81872626, 81573151, U1204823, and 81573243); and the Science and Expertise Basis for Innovation Expertise of Henan Province (grant no. 154200510010). All of the funders had no position within the design, evaluation, or writing of this text.

The authors don’t have any related pursuits to declare. The findings and conclusions on this report are these of the authors and don’t essentially symbolize the official place of the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention. No borrowed materials, copyrighted surveys, devices, or instruments have been used for this text.



Creator Data

Corresponding Authors: Wenjie Li, MD, PhD, Division of Diet and Meals Hygiene, Faculty of Public Well being, Zhengzhou College, 100 Kexue Ave, Zhengzhou, 450001 Henan, China. Phone: 86-371-6778-1305. Electronic mail: [email protected]

Creator Affiliations: 1Department of Diet and Meals Hygiene, Faculty of Public Well being, Zhengzhou College, Henan, China. 2Department of Epidemiology and Well being Statistics, Faculty of Public Well being, Zhengzhou College, Henan, China.


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