Vitamins 696x496 1

magnesium uti

1School of Drugs, Lebanese American College, Byblos 1401, Lebanon

1School of Drugs, Lebanese American College, Byblos 1401, Lebanon

2School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American College, Byblos 1401, Lebanon

3Clinic Dr. Ralph Irani for Different Drugs, Beirut 1202, Lebanon

4Pharmaceutical Science Division, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese American College, Byblos 1401, Lebanon




1. Introduction

The urinary tract is a sterile setting in wholesome individuals and stays some of the inclined websites for bacterial infections [1]. About 50% of girls expertise a UTI in comparison with 12% for males, with a recurrence price of 25% inside 6–12 months [2, 3]. An uncomplicated UTI is one that doesn’t progress to a extreme illness in a standard host with no practical or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract, and its main remedy is for symptomatic aid [4]. Moreover, the predominant etiology of uncomplicated UTIs in younger ladies is the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), representing greater than 80% of the instances and rising the chance of a recurrent UTI [3, 5]. Recurrent UTIs are outlined as two uncomplicated infections occurring inside six months or 3 infections inside one yr after the remedy and full decision of the earlier symptomatic an infection [6]. Evidently, antibiotics are probably the most generally prescribed remedy for UTIs, and people affected by recurrent UTI are given low prophylactic antibiotic doses [7]. Nonetheless, a significant concern arises because of the elevated charges of resistance to remedy of UTIs, which makes their administration more difficult whereas in search of using dearer and fewer efficient medication [8, 9].

This paper studies two instances of females who have been handled with a routine of dietary dietary supplements after being identified with recurrent UTIs immune to most antibiotics and confirmed full therapeutic.


2. Case  1

A 28-year-old feminine presents with a historical past of rUTI, which began on the age of 11. She suffered signs of extreme constipation that she handled with natural laxatives. She skilled episodes of fatigue, pubic ache, lack of urge for food, malaise, dysuria, polyuria, urinary incontinence, and macroscopic hematuria. The frequency and severity of the signs elevated with age, and its recurrence has shifted from occurring as soon as yearly to as soon as each 2-3 months after she began having common sexual activity. As well as, she suffered from dyspareunia and pressing urination that have been aggravated after tampons utilization. Pelvic ultrasound didn’t present any renal calculi or bladder enlargement, but it revealed indicators of interstitial cystitis.

Completely different antibiotics got for remedy together with ciprofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d), ofloxacin (200 mg b.i.d) or norfloxacin (400 mg b.i.d), cefuroxime (500 mg b.i.d), or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1 g b.i.d). Resistance was developed to those medication and others got aiming to stop the recurrence comparable to nitrofurantoin (100 mg bid) and fosfomycin (3 g/day), to which she was delicate. Nonetheless, the signs of interstitial cystitis endured regardless of the antibiotic remedy and the affected person developed candidiasis that was resolved with fluconazole (150 mg) taken each 5 days after beginning antibiotic remedy. But the affected person turned nonresponsive to fluconazole, which was substituted with itraconazole (100 mg bid each 2 days).

One yr in the past, she began an alternate medical remedy that included simultaneous consumption of cranberry tablets (containing 700 mg cranberry extract conc Tit 1%, consumption of proanthocyanidin 7 mg, grapefruit seeds dry extract 4/1 100 mg, Orthosiphon titrated dry extract 0.2% 100 mg, consumption of sinensetin 0.2 mg, and goldenrod titrated dry extract 10/1 100 mg), probiotics (containing vitamin B1 0.42 mg, vitamin B2 0.48 mg, vitamin B6 0.6 mg, niacin 5.4 mg, vitamin B5 1.8 mg, vitamin B12 0.3 μg, and whole milk enzymes: L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and L. bulgaricus, dwelling cells not lower than 2 billion), L-arginine (2 tablets/day, arginine hydrochloride 1000 mg in a single serving capsule), and 1 pill of magnesium at night time (magnesium oxide 300 mg in every serving capsule). Following this routine, the frequency and urgency to urinate decreased and UTI recurred after 2 month. Afterwards, she began taking garlic softgel tablets (serving measurement 2 softgels: garlic oil 4.6 mg, 500 : 1 focus equal to 2300 mg recent garlic) and parsley seed oil tablets (110 μg, 2000 : 1 focus equal to 220 mg recent parsley). These have proven a lower within the UTI recurrence to 6-7 months and ultimately no recurrence was recorded for the final 12 months. Furthermore, the severity of recurrence has decreased and response to antibiotics has change into extra pronounced. Later when she discontinued garlic consumption and have become noncompliant to this remedy, UTI reappeared after 2 months.

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3. Case  2

A 28-year-old feminine introduced with the historical past of rUTI because the age of 23. The affected person’s signs embrace burning sensations within the decrease space with stabbing-like ache, urgency, and dysuria adopted by hesitancy. The affected person additionally reported a excessive frequency of urination, reaching 10 occasions/hr. In her first recurrent episode, urinalysis revealed pyuria (8–10 WBCs/hpf) and optimistic nitrites take a look at and E. coli tradition. Then, ciprofloxacin was prescribed (500 mg bid for five days) and she or he skilled 2-3 recurrence episodes with optimistic E. coli cultures. Afterward, resistance to ciprofloxacin was developed with pelvic echogram and cystoscopy not exhibiting any abnormality, whereas urinalysis confirmed persistent bacteriuria and cultures of E. coli immune to fluoroquinolones.

Together with recurrent UTI over time, interstitial cystitis additionally began along with persistent day by day signs of overreactive bladder, urgency, frequency, and pubic ache. Nitrofurantoin (2 tablets/day) was prescribed together with fluvoxamine (1 pill t.i.d.) to alleviate signs of overreactive bladder. Her earlier historical past included no sexual exercise for the final 4 years, persistent constipation, nutritious diet and way of life, insufficient water consumption, and using intimate perfumed washing gel fragranced, panty-liners and artificial polyester lingerie, and again to entrance wiping hygiene.

With time the affected person entered a despair because of the rUTI with persistent E. coli cultures and the persistent interstitial cystitis that remained untreatable. An alternate remedy routine was prescribed and it included cranberry tablets (1 pill t.i.d.), probiotics (1 pill earlier than breakfast and dinner), garlic and parsley (6 tablets at night time), magnesium tablets (2 tablets 300 mg every at night time), night primrose oil (2 tablets after lunch), and L-arginine (500 mg, 1 pill t.i.d.). A number of weeks following this routine, the affected person’s signs together with an overreactive bladder diminished, and urgency, frequency, and pubic ache decreased by 80%. Cultures remained destructive and the affected person skilled just one interstitial cystitis episode, which was alleviated with L-arginine (1000 mg), magnesium tablets, and sustained hydration.


4. Dialogue – “magnesium uti”

The failure of standard antibiotic remedy to stop and deal with rUTI attributable to antibiotic resistance represents a significant concern in medical observe these days. Therefore, different remedy has emerged to assist many younger ladies aid their signs, forestall the recurrence, and reduce the frequency of bacterial resistance [10]. On this research, we report an efficient complete, different therapeutic routine for treating and stopping rUTIs, that are nonresponsive to mostly used medical protocols and tips.

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For ladies affected by rUTI, standard administration is predicated on low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis utilizing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40 mg/200 mg day by day), nitrofurantoin (100 mg/day), or cephalexin (250 mg day by day) [11]. Nonetheless, using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is restricted to sufferers with resistance charges not exceeding 20% and with out allergy to sulfa medication [5, 9]. Nonetheless, these antibiotics have probably deadly uncomfortable side effects, the place nitrofurantoin might result in respiratory misery and liver damage [9]. Moreover, the FDA has just lately issued a brand new warning on fluoroquinolone consumption attributable to its affiliation with a everlasting neuropathy and elevated threat of retinal detachment [12]. The issue of antibiotic resistance can be on the rise since ladies with frequent recurrent infections and signs can self-initiate a 3-day routine of antibiotics remedy with out consulting a doctor. Because of the rising resistance of uropathogenic micro organism to totally different antibiotics, carbapenems and ertapenem stay the final line of protection that requires cautious use and are reserved solely to instances of recurrent UTI attributable to ESBL strains of uropathogenic E. coli [13].

A number of elements have contributed to the relative success of this remedy routine. The importance of this routine is attributed to the truth that the signs of UTI disappeared for an extended length of time in comparison with earlier recurrent UTIs within the described instances. Consequently, this routine might support in reducing using antibiotics amongst UTI sufferers together with the danger for creating resistance to antibiotics. The persistence of bacteriuria within the first case and its absence within the second case may very well be attributed to the intense compliance to the given routine of the second affected person over the opposite.

Moreover, apigenin, the primary part of parsley, was proven to own diuretic results along with anti-inflammatory properties, that are important within the remedy of UTIs [14, 15]. Garlic in flip is well-known for its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, that are attributed to diallyl thiosulphate (allicin) and different sulfur containing compounds [16, 17]. Garlic additionally displays antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory results that support within the remedy of interstitial cystitis [18]. Only a few research have been carried out on the impact of garlic within the remedy of UTIs, however one research has revealed that garlic had a major impact on attenuating the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo, in an experimental UTI mannequin [19]. Due to this fact, the mixture of garlic oil and parsley in drugs may have a synergistic impact on bacterial progress and proliferation. Furthermore, cranberry comprises vital quantities of D-mannose, which is ready to adhere to the bladder epithelium, thus interfering with the adherence of E. coli and inflicting it to easily wash away throughout urination [20]. The significance of cranberry has been proven in a randomized medical trial that demonstrated a lower in UTI recurrence over a interval of 6 months [21]. Moreover, a latest research examined using cranberry drugs as prophylaxis of rUTI in ladies and located that it decreased the recurrence price to 1.1 per yr, and it was probably the most cost-effective methodology of all different therapies examined [22].

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Throughout sexual exercise, the urinary tract could also be colonized by micro organism that transfer from the bowel or vagina [23]. Therefore, oral probiotics preparations are used to assist repopulate the conventional flora within the GI tract. Probiotics are thought to help the GI tract or vagina to withstand invasion and adhesion of uropathogens, regulate intestinal flora, lower constipation on the proper doses, improve the immune system, and enhance the inhabitants of Lactobacillus that modulate native pH [24]. A Dutch double-blind trial has proven {that a} preparation containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus decreased antibiotic resistance as in comparison with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [25]. Different research have proven that Lactobacillus preparations restored and maintained the conventional flora in ladies [26], elevated the variety of lactobacilli [27], improved vaginal well being [28], and precipitated a aid from signs of UTI in ladies [29]. Therefore, restoring a balanced microbial flora is crucial within the presence of assorted UTI-promoting elements comparable to artificial lingerie, intimate perfumed washing gel, and tampons. Moreover, the aforementioned protocol has a part with anti-inflammatory exercise, which makes it helpful for each UTIs and cystitis.

The oxidation of L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase leads to the formation of nitric oxide (NO), which displays antibacterial, easy muscle rest, hormone releasing, and immune modulating properties [30]. Moreover, a excessive focus of NO can inhibit the expansion of various microorganisms, lower oxidative stress, and regulate and regenerate bladder uroepithelial cells, in addition to assuaging and treating interstitial cystitis [31]. Thus, L-arginine can play an necessary position as a prophylaxis after remedy of UTIs to stop the event of latest infections in addition to the remedy of an overreactive bladder. Alternatively, magnesium produces a double impact since it may support in lowering constipation, therefore reducing the recurrence frequency, in addition to enjoyable the sleek muscle of the bladder resulting in much less frequent urination [10].

In mild of the present widespread medical outcomes of UTIs, the necessity for different therapeutic modalities to antibiotics has change into extra essential, particularly for rUTIs. As well as, the elevated price of hospitalization and its prices will increase the danger of buying ESBL-producing E. coli which might be immune to a number of antibiotics [10]. The present different strategy is a complete routine that may work successfully not solely in prophylaxis but in addition in rUTI, attributable to its anti-inflammatory and bacteriostatic parts. Therefore, ladies having a primary episode of acute UTI can comply with this routine to stop future recurrence. General, this complete remedy routine could be initiated at any time when signs reappear, with optimistic bacterial cultures, and L-arginine will likely be used notably to alleviate sufferers from overreactive bladder with out conferring threat of pyelonephritis. This routine can be used alone or complementary to traditional remedy modality, and if the signs didn’t resolve inside 3 days, sufferers can proceed on a 7-day routine together with antibiotics to lower their urinary tract bacterial load.


Battle of Pursuits

The authors declare that there isn’t any battle of pursuits relating to the publication of this paper.


Authors’ Contribution

Anthony Mansour and Essa Hariri contributed equally to this work.


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