Vitamins 696x496 1

omega 3 vitamin c

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Analysis Heart, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan College of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Analysis Heart, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan College of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Analysis Heart, Tehran College of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Analysis Heart, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan College of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran





Lead is a extremely poisonous heavy steel and a significant environmental air pollution. The lead contamination can happen from totally different sources comparable to paint, glazed ceramics, water, meals containers, cigarettes, and cosmetics. It’s effectively documented that continual publicity to guide could cause its accumulation within the bone, muscle, liver, kidneys, hematopoietic system and the mind adopted by the toxicity occasions. Neurotoxicity is a well-liked dysfunction from the lead publicity which includes each central and peripheral nervous system. Lead-induced neurotoxicity triggers a variety of structural and behavioral adjustments within the nervous system (1,2). Cognitive impairment is likely one of the commonest deterioration happens from the lead neurotoxicity (3).

Though the alteration of important enzyme exercise, receptors like glutamate, neuro-transmitters like acetylcholine, calcium homeostasis, and DNA harm are thought of because the mechanisms of lead toxicity (2), enhance in era of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppression of cell antioxidant capability play a key function within the lead-induced structural and behavioral neurotoxicity. Suppression of cell antioxidant capability can completely impair the integrity of cell membrane, DNA and different macromolecules, lastly causes cell apoptosis or cell demise generally known as neurodegenerative results (4). Subsequently, the antioxidant brokers may probably shield the neuronal harm towards to the lead toxicity (5).

There are a number of brokers possess antioxidant property or scavenging impact of ROS. Among the well-known antioxidant that’s freely accessible for human is ascorbic acid (Vit C) and the fish oil (ω-3). Additionally the vitamin B12 (Vit B12, cobalamin) is likely one of the most essential dietary supplements want for the traditional operate of neurons within the nervous system (6).

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Vit C, a six carbon lactate, is a water soluble vitamin discovered within the dietary sources comparable to citrus fruits, grape fruits, berries, cabbage, tomatoes, pepper, and leafy greens (7).

The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, encompass docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), is especially current in fish, shell fish, and sea mammals and in addition finds in land animals and vegetation (8,9).

Vit B12, a water soluble vitamin, exists within the egg, milk, meat, and fish. It performs a regulatory function within the CNS enzymes exercise as a co-factor and causes their right metabolic operate (10).

The goal of the present examine was firstly to determine the cognitive impairment of repeated lead publicity and secondly to guage the doable protecting impact of Vit C, Vit B12, ω-3 or their mixture on the lead-induced reminiscence dysfunction utilizing Object Recognition Job (ORT).






DISCUSSION – “omega 3 vitamin c”

Through the improvement of industries on the planet, publicity to guide aspect and consequently its toxicity has been elevated worldwide. Central nervous system is an important goal for the lead toxicity. Lead-induced neurotoxicities embrace behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological disruptions (1,14). Within the current examine, we evaluated the doable protecting results of Vit C, Vit B12, and ω-3 alone or together, on the lead-induced reminiscence impairment in a rat mannequin.

Following repeated doses of lead animals confirmed a discount in d2 and R indices in comparison with that of the management animals. d2 index signifies the variations between new and outdated object exploration time whereas the R index signifies the exploration time that animals particularly spend across the new object. This can be a marker associated to the reminiscence of animal to the outdated object. The outcomes confirmed that lead-treated group spent much less time for exploration of the novel object than the acquainted one compared with the management group. The lead additionally diminished the distinction between exploration frequencies of the novel and outdated objects seen within the management group. Usually, the animals confirmed extra exploratory behavioral in time and frequency to new object than the outdated one as a result of they’d a reminiscence to the outdated object in trial T2. The reminiscence damaging agent impaired the reminiscence to outdated object and brought on a discount in variations between outdated and new object exploration. These information exhibit that repeated publicity to guide causes damaging results on the reminiscence in rat.

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The present outcomes are in settlement with the massive quantity of experimental and medical research which demonstrated lead publicity impairs cognitive features and destroys the reminiscence and studying processes in human and animals (3,15,16). A number of mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the neurotoxicity of pb 2+. Probably the most essential mechanisms in lead-induced neurotoxicity is the triggering of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress processes by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (16,17,18). As well as, lead binds to the thiol teams of biologic macromolecules like glutathione and reduces their reductive potencies and antioxidant actions (19). It has been reported that the initiating of apoptosis cascade, growing inflammatory mediators, alteration in glutamate-induced neuroplasticity and adjustments in calcium homeostasis are a few of different mechanisms concerned in lead neurotoxicity (20,21,22,23,24).

The present examine offered evidences that administration of 120 mg/kg Vit C, 1 mg/kg Vit B12, and 1000 mg/kg ω-3 for 3 weeks earlier than lead publicity may clearly stop the lead- induced reminiscence impairments. Vit C, Vit B12, and ω-3 confirmed comparable helpful results when administered together. Though every complement improves the reminiscence within the experimental teams, vital variations amongst handled teams weren’t noticed.

The protecting impact of Vit C on the lead-induced reminiscence impairment is in settlement with the research indicated that the Vit C may enhance dementia induced by getting older or anticholinergic brokers in animals (7,25). It’s well-known that Vit C is very concentrated within the central nervous system and possess the antioxidant properties. Certainly, Vit C scavenges the Pb2+ generated ROS (25,26,27).

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There are a number of evidences representing Vit C anti-inflammatory results by inhibiting the NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 (28), in addition to its anti-apoptotic impact (29). With aforementioned mechanisms, Vit C protects the important thing pathways within the reminiscence formation together with the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurons towards the lead-induced damages (30,31).

Vit B12 is definitely a nerve complement simply passing the blood mind barrier. Many research have demonstrated that Vit B12 mediates restoration course of within the nervous system and performs a protecting function within the neurodegenerative problems comparable to Parkinson’s, a number of sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s illness. Vit B12 possesses the antioxidant exercise and is concerned within the synthesis of phospholipids and myelin. It additionally reveals anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-necrotic results (32,33,34,35). These mechanisms may clarify the noticed helpful results of Vit B12 within the current examine.

Omega-3 fatty acids comprise essentially the most ample polyunsaturated fatty acids that within the mind trigger neuronal differentiation, neurite development, synapses formation, and receptor biogenesis (36). The polyunsaturated fatty acids may play the pro-oxidant function within the oxidative tensions and encounter the lipid peroxidation of neuronal cells (37). It may possibly additionally lower the inflammatory elements, suppress neuronal apoptosis in addition to improve nitric oxide era inflicting enchancment in cerebrovascular endothelial operate (38,39). It’s well-known that the polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate neural features together with neurotransmitters particularly acetylcholine, membrane fluidity, ion channel, enzyme regulation, and neurotrophin gene expression (35,40,41). There are some research per our outcomes that evidenced the preventive or ameliorating results of polyunsaturated fatty acids within the reminiscence impairment induced by stress, getting older or totally different neurotoxic brokers (8,40,41,42).



In abstract, the current examine offered evidences that totally different neuro-influence brokers, Vit C, Vit B12, and ω-3 stop the reminiscence impairment induced by lead aspect. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-neurodegeneration properties of those dietary supplements may very well be supposed as their foremost mechanism of motion within the reversing of lead-induced reminiscence losses.




“omega 3 vitamin c”

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