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proteinuria without kidney disease

1Division of Nephrology, Division of Medication, lmo State College Educating Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria

2Division of Nephrology, Division of Medication, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria

3Division of Respirology, Division of Medication, Nnamdi Azikiwe College Educating Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

1Division of Nephrology, Division of Medication, lmo State College Educating Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria





The world prevalence of proteinuria within the common inhabitants is just not recognized. Nevertheless, in Australia, a large-scale research confirmed a proteinuria prevalence of two.4% within the common inhabitants [1]. In USA, prevalence of 1.7% was documented in a research [2]. A prevalence of 4.4% was reported in Japan [3]. Research from Sub-Saharan Africa confirmed an analogous prevalence [4]. In two research, Nigeria reported 29.7% and 1.9% [5, 6].

Proteinuria is a longtime marker of persistent kidney illness. A meta-analysis of research on persistent kidney illness (CKD) famous that proteinuria was used to find out the presence of kidney injury in solely 69% of the research, whereas estimated glomerular filtration charge (GFR) was used within the remaining 31% [4]. This has undermined identification and monitoring of sufferers with CKD who could have persistent kidney injury with out impaired GFR.

Within the setting of CKD, with or with out impaired GFR, proteinuria is a acknowledged impartial danger issue for cardiovascular and renal illness, and a predictor of end-organ injury [7, 8].

The predictors of proteinuria from earlier research included HIV an infection, hepatitis C virus an infection [9, 10].

There may be paucity of research on the predictors of proteinuria in Nigeria, and none from literature search within the South jap a part of Nigeria. We have now subsequently, got down to decide the predictors of remoted proteinuria within the common inhabitants in Owerri, Nigeria. It will assist in figuring out potential sufferers within the common inhabitants who could have kidney injury, with out impairment of renal filtration perform.



This was a two-month, cross sectional research carried out in FMC Owerri, in 2011.

100 and thirty-six, 18-65 years-old topics had been consecutively recruited from the Medical Out-Affected person Division of the hospital.

Approval for this research was obtained from the Analysis Moral Committee of FMC.

Knowledgeable consent was obtained from all the themes who took half on this research.

Topics with kidney illness, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or any circumstances recognized to be related to kidney injury and people on nephrotoxic medication had been excluded from the research. Demographic and anthropometric knowledge had been collected with use of questionnaire.

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Investigations achieved on every of the themes had been serum creatinine, spot urine protein (SUP), spot urine creatinine (SUCr), spot urine osmolality (SUOsm), 24HUCr, 24-hour urine osmolality (24HUOsm), 24-hour urine protein (24HUP), fasting serum ldl cholesterol, low density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol (LDL), excessive density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride.

Creatinine was decided by modified Jeffe’s methodology, protein by photometric methodology and osmolality by freezing level melancholy methodology utilizing Precision System Osmette 5002 osmometer. Creatinine clearance (ClCr), SUPCR, SUPOR, 24HUPCR, 24HUPOR, spot urine creatinine/osmolality ratio (SUCOR), 24HUCOR had been decided.

Proteinuria was outlined as 24HUP ≥ 0.300g and impaired renal filtration perform as ClCr <90mls/min. Potential danger components of proteinuria evaluated, right here, had been: age, serum creatinine, SUP, SUCr, SUOsm, 24HUV, 24HUCr, 24HUOsm, SUPCR, SUPOR, 24HUPCR, 24HUPOR, SUCOR, 24HUCOR, ClCr, physique mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), ldl cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride, hemoglobin, systolic blood stress (SBP), diastolic blood stress (DBP). SPSS model 17 was used to investigate the information. The distribution and characterization of variables between topics with proteinuria and people with out proteinuria had been decided utilizing cross tabulation. Correlation statistics had been used to find out the affiliation of variables with proteinuria, whereas multivariate linear regression evaluation was used to find out the power of variables to foretell proteinuria. P<0.05 was taken as statistically important.  


The full variety of topics that took half within the research was 136. Females had been 98 (72.1%) whereas males had been 38(27.9%). The feminine/male ratio was 3:1. The imply age of topics was 38.58±11.79 years. The imply serum creatinine was 0.88±0.19g/dl, SUOsm 334±204mOsm/kgH2O, 24HUOsm 284±253mOsm, 24HUP 0.095±0.087g, ClCr 93.01+15.19ml/min. Not one of the topics has ClCr <60ml/min. Six topics have ClCr 60-89mls/min and had been excluded from the research. Imply values of different variables are proven in Desk 1. Out of the 130 topics, 20(14.1%) have proteinuria, whereas 110(85.9%) didn't have proteinuria Desk 2 exhibits the connection between proteinuria and chosen danger components within the research inhabitants. There was no important affiliation between proteinuria and completely different BMI classes, p=0.120. The completely different WC ranges confirmed no important affiliation with proteinuria in each males, p=0.737, and females, p=0.457. Equally, there was no important affiliation between proteinuria and lipid profiles: ldl cholesterol p=0.263, LDL p=0.943, HDL p=0.637, triglyceride p=0.394.

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Desk 3 exhibits the correlation coefficient (r) of proteinuria with potential danger components within the research inhabitants had been: SUCr -0.183, SUOsm -0.225, 24HUV 0.254, SUPCR 0.513, SUPOR 0.366, 24HUPCR 0.682, 24HUPOR 0.702, 24HUCOR 0.440. Unfavorable values imply inverse relationship with proteinuria. The p values had been important, implying that these variables have important direct affiliation with proteinuria. Conversely, there was no important correlation between proteinuria and age, serum creatinine, SUP, 24HUCr, 24HUOsm, SUCOR, ClCr, BMI, WC, complete ldl cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, hemoglobin, SBP, DBP. Multivariate linear regression evaluation of the potential predictors of proteinuria is proven in Desk 4. Excessive 24HUV, excessive SUPCR, excessive 24HUPCR, excessive 24HUPOR, low SUPOR and low 24HUCOR had been predictors of proteinuria on this research.  

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This research confirmed that the predictors of proteinuria had been excessive 24HUV, excessive SUPCR, excessive 24HUPCR, excessive 24HUPOR, low SUPOR, and low 24HUCOR in topics with out impaired renal filtration perform in Owerri, Nigeria.

The discovering of 24HUV as a predictor of proteinuria on this research tends to recommend that kidney injury related to proteinuria will even give rise to passage of elevated urine quantity. A research reported rising urine quantity related to lowering renal perform [11]. The research, nonetheless, didn’t consider the affiliation of urine quantity with proteinuria, however urine quantity in decreased renal perform outlined solely by decreased renal filtration perform. Nonetheless, our discovering doesn’t agree with earlier research through which kidney illness was proven to be related to fluid retention and decreased urine quantity [12].

Nevertheless, glomerular illness with proteinuria could later have an effect on the interstitial compartment and will result in distal tubular injury, some with attendant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus that’s related to polyuria [13, 14].

Low SUCr was related to proteinuria on this research. This agrees with established incontrovertible fact that urine creatinine decreases as kidney injury progresses [15]. Nevertheless, multi-linear regression evaluation confirmed SUCr was not a predictor of proteinuria. SUCr is thought to range over 24 hours of the times and will not point out quantitatively the presence of renal injury [16].

Low SUOsm was, as discovered on this research, considerably related to proteinuria. Additional evaluation, nonetheless, confirmed it was not a predictor of proteinuria. Low SUOsm could recommend a low capability to manage and focus urine by the kidney. This discovering is in consonance with the report from research which confirmed that decreased capacity to pay attention urine occurred as kidney injury progressed [11, 17].

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Each SUPCR and SUPOR had been predictors of proteinuria on this research. They’re indices of 24-hour urine protein estimation, and expectedly, ought to mirror proteinuria.

We discovered that each 24HUPCR and 24HUPOR had been predictors of proteinuria on this research. They don’t seem to be routine screening instruments in medical observe. Literature search didn’t reveal any research through which they had been utilized in evaluating renal perform.

Our research additionally famous that 24HUCOR was a destructive predictor of proteinuria. Merely put, as proteinuria elevated, 24HUCOR decreased. From literature search, we didn’t discover any research that in contrast 24HUCOR in topics with proteinuria and people with out proteinuria.

No affiliation was discovered between age and proteinuria. Nevertheless, Agbaji et al [18] reported affiliation of age with CKD. Of their research, the research inhabitants consisted of HIV topics, whereas ours, right here, was a non-HIV inhabitants. As well as, CKD of their research design was outlined by GFR, in distinction to our research which was on proteinuria with out impaired renal filtration perform.

We didn’t discover any affiliation between ldl cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, HDL-C, with proteinuria. A research, nonetheless, reported excessive ldl cholesterol and excessive triglyceride as predictors of CKD in HIV topics, contrasting with our research in non-HIV inhabitants [19, 20].

Hemoglobin was not related to proteinuria on this research. In distinction, anemia was related to CKD in a single research [21].

This research additionally confirmed that there was no affiliation between SBP, DBP and proteinuria. In distinction, some research discovered SBP and DBP as predictors of CKD [20–23]. Our research exclusion standards eliminated these topics that had been hypertensive. Most of those reference research used GFR to outline renal injury, whereas our research used solely proteinuria to indicate renal injury, with out impairment of renal filtration perform.



The chance components of proteinuria on this research inhabitants included excessive 24HUV, excessive SUPCR, excessive 24HUPCR, excessive 24HUPOR, low SUPOR and low 24HUCOR. Additional search ought to discover the connection between urine creatinine and urine osmolality, and the way this relationship could have an effect on development of kidney injury with or with out impaired renal filtration perform. Limitations: The research inhabitants was small. A bigger research inhabitants dimension would have been higher.


Competing pursuits

The authors declare no competing curiosity.

“proteinuria without kidney disease”

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