Vitamins 696x496 1

roux en y vitamin deficiency

Division of Scientific Drugs and Surgical procedure, Federico II College, 80131 Naples, Italy

Division of Scientific Drugs and Surgical procedure, Federico II College, 80131 Naples, Italy

Division of Scientific Drugs and Surgical procedure, Federico II College, 80131 Naples, Italy

Division of Scientific Drugs and Surgical procedure, Federico II College, 80131 Naples, Italy

Division of Public Well being, Federico II College, 80131 Naples, Italy

Division of Scientific Drugs and Surgical procedure, Federico II College, 80131 Naples, Italy

Correspondence to: Brunella Capaldo, MD, Division of Scientific Drugs and Surgical procedure, Federico II College, Through Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy. ti.aninu@odlapacb




Core tip: Bariatric surgical procedure is more and more and efficiently utilized for the therapy of morbid weight problems. Regardless of a number of medical advantages, i.e., sturdy weight reduction and enchancment/reversal of many comorbidities, numerous dietary issues can develop particularly in the long run, which might trigger severe detriment to sufferers’ well being. We study some vital medical situations which might be attributable to the deficit of nutritional vitamins and micronutrients, equivalent to anemia, osteoporosis, and malnutrition. We additionally focus on the significance of cautious pre-operative assessments and the correction of pre-existing dietary deficiencies, and current the present suggestions for an acceptable biochemical and dietary monitoring in the long run.



Weight problems has turn out to be an vital public well being precedence as a result of it will increase the chance of comorbid situations, together with diabetes, heart problems and several other sorts of cancers. As well as, it impacts life high quality and expectancy[1]. The impression of weight problems on life expectancy has been nicely documented. Worldwide, over 2.5 million deaths yearly might be attributed to weight problems. Of explicit concern is the rising financial burden that the care of weight problems and its issues imposes on society and the well being care system[2].

The rising prevalence of weight problems and comorbid situations worldwide prompts for efficient methods for each therapy and prevention[1]. The therapy of weight problems consists of life-style modifications (dietary restrictions and elevated bodily exercise), using drugs, and in some instances, surgical procedure. Life-style modifications may cause a 2%-6% weight reduction; nevertheless, after 1-5 years, nearly 90% of the sufferers have returned to their unique weight or may even achieve some weight. Drug therapy usually results in a 5%-15% weight reduction and needs to be thought of solely as an adjunct to life-style modifications. Sadly, with respect to life-style intervention, medical therapy not often yields passable ends in the long run[1,3].

Bariatric surgical procedure has confirmed to attain larger weight reduction than non-surgical administration and, most significantly, has confirmed to keep up it in the long run[4]. Thus, in sufferers with morbid weight problems, i.e., a physique mass index of ≥ 40 or ≥ 35 kg/m2 with co-morbidities, bariatric surgical procedure is presently thought of to be the one efficient remedy for weight problems. In depth information exhibit that surgical procedure can enhance and even reverse many comorbidities, equivalent to kind 2 diabetes, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and steatohepatitis[5-7]. With regard to kind 2 diabetes, observational and randomized managed trials with a follow-up period of as much as 5 years have established the prevalence of bariatric surgical procedure over medical remedy at attaining remission of the illness and enchancment of the general cardiovascular threat profile[8-10]. One of many longest weight-loss research – the Swedish Overweight Topics – evaluated the long-term results of various bariatric procedures and demonstrated important reductions in cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality in addition to important enchancment within the high quality of life[11-13].

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Regardless of a number of medical advantages, numerous surgical and gastrointestinal issues can happen following bariatric procedures, though the diffusion of the laparoscopic method and the growth of facilities of excellence have tremendously decreased the speed of post-operative mortality and adversarial occasions[14]. The imply mortality price is 0.3% for all procedures, which is akin to these for hip substitute (0.3%) or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (0.3%-0.6%). Certainly, even decrease mortality charges (0.04-0.13) are achieved in high-volume weight problems facilities[14]. Among the many potential issues, dietary deficiencies deserve cautious consideration. They’ll develop as a consequence of decreased consumption and/or malabsorption of vitamins and are extra generally seen after malabsorptive or blended procedures compared to the restrictive procedures. Different causal components embody pre-operative deficiencies, post-surgery meals intolerance, modifications in style and consuming patterns and non-adherence to dietary and complement suggestions. Dietary deficiencies can current with a variety of medical manifestations, relying on the precise vitamins/micronutrients which might be concerned, the severity, and the period of the deficiency states. As a result of they might trigger severe detriment to sufferers’ on a regular basis lives and, in some cases, might end in life-threatening issues, a dietary screening each earlier than and after surgical procedure is strongly beneficial.

This overview focuses on the principle dietary points associated to bariatric procedures by analyzing some vital medical situations which might be attributable to the deficit of nutritional vitamins and micronutrients, equivalent to anemia, osteoporosis, neurologic issues, and malnutrition. We may also focus on the significance of cautious pre-operative assessments and the correction of pre-existing dietary deficiencies, that are fairly widespread in overweight sufferers. Final, suggestions for the prevention and therapy of dietary deficiencies after bariatric surgical procedure are offered.



Surgical procedures are usually categorised into restrictive procedures, wherein the abdomen’s capability is tremendously decreased, malabsorptive procedures, wherein malabsorption is the first driver of the burden loss, or a mix of restrictive and malabsorptive components (Determine ​(Figure1).1). Nonetheless, over the previous few years, it has turn out to be clear that weight reduction just isn’t solely because of decreased meals consumption and/or absorption induced by modification of gastrointestinal anatomy but in addition a consequence of modifications in neural and intestine hormonal alerts that regulate starvation and satiety, intestine microbiota, intestinal nutrient sensing, meals preferences, and presumably power expenditure[15]. These so-called weight-independent mechanisms contribute to a variable extent to weight reduction and metabolic enchancment, relying on the kind of surgical method.

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (AGB)

An adjustable silicone band is positioned across the higher abdomen, a number of centimeters under the cardia, making a 15 to 30 mL gastric pouch. The diameter of the outlet might be modified by injection of or elimination of saline by a portal positioned within the subcutaneous tissue that’s related to the band.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)

A small, vertically oriented gastric pouch is created, which stays connected to the esophagus at one finish and, on the different finish, is related to a small part of the small gut, thus bypassing the remaining abdomen and the preliminary loop of the small gut.

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Sleeve gastrectomy (SG)

The operation includes division of the abdomen vertically, which reduces its dimension by 75%. The pyloric valve on the backside of the abdomen is preserved such that the abdomen perform and digestion stay unaltered. The process just isn’t reversible and may be a primary stage process to a RYGB or duodenal change.

Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)

The operation consists of a distal horizontal gastrectomy that leaves a 200-250 mL of higher abdomen. This remnant abdomen is anastomosed to the distal 250 cm of small gut (alimentary limb). The excluded small gut (carrying bile and pancreatic secretion), referred to as the biliopancreatic limb, is related to the small bowel 50 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. The 50-cm widespread limb is the one section the place digestive secretions and vitamins combine, which causes a marked malabsorption, particularly for fats and protein.

A latest survey by the Worldwide Federation for the Surgical procedure of Weight problems confirmed that RYGB and SG account for the big majority of bariatric procedures (45% and 37%, respectively). Using ABG has drastically fallen over the past decade and at present accounts for 10% of all procedures. BPD and its duodenal change (BPD/DS)variant, that are really malabsorptive procedures, are not often used (< 2%) to this point given the excessive threat of dietary issues[16].  




It’s a widespread perception that dietary deficiencies are uncommon in Western nations as a result of availability of low price and limitless number of meals provide. Nonetheless, overweight topics usually undertake an unhealthy weight-reduction plan that’s wealthy in high-calorie meals with an unbalanced dietary composition[67,68]. The concomitant presence of excessive calorie consumption and nutrient deficiencies might impression the effectiveness of calorie utilization, which might decide a vicious cycle that results in additional weight achieve, despair, consuming issues, metabolic syndrome, fatigue and extra[67]. In assist of those ideas, a rising variety of research within the literature attest to the frequent prevalence of nutrient and/or vitamin/mineral deficiencies in morbidly overweight people previous to bariatric surgical procedure, earlier than weight reduction and potential surgical-related malabsorption set in.

With regard to the vitamin standing, most proof refers to a 25(OH)vitamin D deficit. Vitamin D insufficiency (< 30 ng/dL) has been reported in roughly 90% of various examine populations, and ranges from 65%[69] to 100%[70], whereas vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/dL) is noticed in roughly 60% of the sufferers, starting from 22%[71] to 83%[72]. The prevalence of extreme deficit (< 10 ng/dL) might attain 25%[73]. The diploma of deficiency is predicted by the diploma of weight problems and race, with African People being at increased threat[74]. Overweight people usually tend to be poor in vitamin D due to the upper volumetric dilution and sequestration of this fat-soluble hormone within the adipose tissue[75]. Because the fats mass will increase, a person would require larger quantities of vitamin D (through photoproduction from solar publicity, dietary consumption, and/or supplementation). Furthermore, though there isn't a distinction within the vitamin D3 manufacturing between overweight and lean people, overweight sufferers present an impaired launch of vitamin D3 from the pores and skin[76]. Genetic variation within the perform of the vitamin D binding protein and vitamin D receptor might additionally affect the 25(OH)D ranges, with some research suggesting a better frequency of the poorer functioning kinds in weight problems[77,78].

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The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in sufferers scheduled for BS is reported in roughly 18% of sufferers. Equally, low ranges of vitamin B1 (thiamine) are reported in as much as 20% of bariatric candidates. Few research have assessed the vitamin C standing in bariatric candidates, with a prevalence that ranges from 15%[69] to 33%[79]. With regard to nutritional vitamins A and E, their deficiencies are much less frequent[69,73]. Particularly, vitamin A has been discovered to be inversely related to BMI, age and variety of comorbidities[73]. This discovering almost definitely happens as a result of low vitamin A ranges are associated to elevated oxidative stress, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, cancers, and age-related macular degeneration[80], all of that are generally related to morbid weight problems. Among the many minerals, iron deficiency is the most typical and ranges from 20% to 47%[81]. Iron and ferritin deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are extra frequent in youthful sufferers (< 25 years) than in older sufferers and in ladies than in males, though this discovering just isn't confirmed in all research[82]. Iron deficiency in overweight sufferers is probably going associated to the destructive impression that continual irritation exerts on iron homeostasis. Particularly, there's proof that cytokines (TNFα and IFNγ) can induce the apoptosis of erythroid progenitor cells and enhance hepcidin ranges, which leads in flip, to decreased intestinal iron absorption and decreased bioavailability[83]. The prevalence of zinc deficiency previous to bariatric surgical procedure quantities to 10.2%[84-86]. Apparently, some research have proven an inverse affiliation of zinc ranges, with C-reactive protein highlighting the adversarial affect of systemic low-grade irritation on the zinc standing[84]. General, the excessive prevalence of pre-surgery dietary deficiencies in bariatric candidates helps the necessity for a cautious pre-operative analysis of the dietary standing, to evaluate and adequately appropriate the pre-existing deficits.  


Dietary deficiencies characterize a related long-term medical downside in sufferers who underwent bariatric surgical procedure on account of modifications to the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, which might impression macro- and micro-nutrient absorption. Due to this fact, the very best practices tips[21] extremely advocate common metabolic and dietary monitoring after bariatric surgical procedure, which frequency varies in line with the kind of process. In mild of the excessive prevalence of nutrient deficiencies even previous to surgical procedure, the present Tips additionally underscore the necessity for a whole pre-surgery dietary evaluation in all candidates for bariatric surgical procedure. The schedule of the biochemical and dietary monitoring for the completely different procedures is reported in Desk ​Table1.1. Though there are few research with long-term dietary follow-up, there’s common settlement that dietary assessments needs to be carried out all through life; moreover, multivitamin and calcium supplementation with added vitamin D is beneficial for all weight-loss surgical procedure sufferers. In conclusion, dietary surveillance is a vital part of the administration of bariatric sufferers for the next causes: (1) will increase the sufferers’ adherence to wholesome dietary habits and acceptable supplementation regimens; (2) prevents the chance of weight regain; (3) facilitates the detection of potential dietary deficiencies that would develop regardless of medical remedy; and (4) contributes to sustaining a very good high quality of life.


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