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vitamin b 3 deficiency

It could possibly trigger many signs, however the most typical are diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. With out prognosis and remedy, pellagra might be life threatening.

On this article, be taught extra about pellagra, together with the danger elements and remedy choices.

Pellagra is a situation that happens because of a scarcity of vitamin B-3, in any other case often called niacin.



Pellagra is a dysfunction that happens when an individual doesn’t get sufficient niacin, or vitamin B-3.

There are two sorts of pellagra: major and secondary. Main pellagra comes from not getting sufficient niacin within the food regimen, whereas secondary pellagra develops when the physique is unable to soak up niacin.

There’s niacin in animal proteins, fruits, and greens. The physique may make niacin utilizing important amino acids.

The physique acquires these amino acids from different meals, akin to hen and sunflower seeds.

Main pellagra is extra widespread in locations the place individuals depend on a food regimen of maize, because the niacin in corn is within the type of niacytin, which individuals can’t digest and soak up.

Some circumstances, akin to alcohol use dysfunction and HIV, cease the physique from absorbing niacin and might trigger secondary pellagra.

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Pellagra causes gastrointestinal, pores and skin, and neurological points. The first signs are:

Gastrointestinal signs

The most typical gastrointestinal challenge is diarrhea. Diarrhea is the passing of unfastened, watery stools a minimum of 3 times per day.

Diarrhea can result in harmful dehydration, and it could trigger malnutrition over time, as it could have an effect on the absorption of vitamins from meals. Additionally it is typically the primary symptom of pellagra to look.

Different gastrointestinal signs embrace:

Dermatological signs

Pellagra-related dermatitis typically causes thickened and scaly pores and skin, rashes, and discoloration.

Docs confer with the looks of those signs across the neck as a Casal collar or Casal necklace. The affected space of pores and skin could grow to be delicate to mild and appear and feel like a sunburn.

Different dermatological signs embrace cheilitis, which is the cracking and irritation of the corners of the mouth, and angular palpebritis, which causes redness and cracking within the eyelid corners.

Neurological signs

Some neurological circumstances, akin to nervousness and melancholy, are early signs of pellagra.

As pellagra advances, individuals could expertise signs of dementia, together with:

There are three essential signs of alcohol-induced pellagra that relate to the mind and nerves. These are:

With out remedy, pellagra might be life threatening and result in demise.


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Causes and threat elements

The underlying causes of major and secondary pellagra are completely different.

Main pellagra happens if an individual’s food regimen is low in niacin. The people who find themselves most vulnerable to getting major pellagra are these whose food regimen depends primarily on maize.

It is vitally uncommon in developed nations, the place producers routinely fortify flour with niacin.

An individual who can’t soak up vitamin B-3, regardless of having a food regimen wealthy in niacin, could develop secondary pellagra. A big threat issue for secondary pellagra is alcohol use dysfunction.

An article from 2014 means that alcohol use dysfunction may cause pellagra by way of malnutrition. An individual is probably not consuming sufficient meals containing niacin, and the alcohol can forestall the physique from absorbing it.

Alcohol may cease sure proteins from turning into niacin, growing the danger of pellagra creating.

Nevertheless, alcohol-induced pellagra typically goes undetected as a result of its presentation is just like that of alcohol-withdrawal delirium.

Different threat elements for secondary pellagra embrace:



A health care provider will have the ability to diagnose pellagra if diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia are all current concurrently.

Nevertheless, the situation might be harder to diagnose if these signs don’t present up on the identical time. A health care provider could check the particular person’s urine and blood to examine whether or not there’s a niacin deficiency together with different pellagra-associated abnormalities.

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Individuals can deal with major pellagra by consuming a food regimen wealthy in niacin. Meat, eggs, fish, and legumes, akin to peas and lentils, are excessive in niacin. Nevertheless, a health care provider will doubtless prescribe vitamin dietary supplements to assist an individual regain wholesome ranges of niacin.

Therapy for secondary pellagra is analogous, however docs may even deal with the underlying trigger.

Signs ought to start to enhance shortly. Docs could prescribe excessive doses of niacin for five days, and the particular person will usually see enhancements of their signs inside 2 days.


Abstract – “vitamin b 3 deficiency”

Pellagra is a severe situation that may severely have an effect on an individual’s high quality of life and well being, doubtlessly resulting in demise. It’s important to see a health care provider if the signs of pellagra seem.

To keep away from pellagra, you will need to eat the advisable each day allowance (RDA) of niacin.

The RDA of niacin is:

Nevertheless, most individuals who don’t depend on maize for meals is not going to develop major pellagra.

As soon as an individual receives remedy for each pellagra and any underlying circumstances, it’s potential to regain full well being.


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