Vitamins 696x496 1

vitamin c skin problems

1Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming, China

1Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming, China

2Bio-ID Middle, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong College, Shanghai, China

1Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming, China

1Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming, China

1Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming, China

 

Summary

 

The Physiology of Vitamin C in Pores and skin

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) is an easy low-molecular-weight carbohydrate that’s important for the physique as a water-soluble vitamin (Lykkesfeldt et al., 2014). As an antioxidant, vitamin C has each oxidized and diminished types within the physique: L-dehydroascorbic and L-ascorbic acid. Though vitamin C is a vital antioxidant, people and different primates acquire vitamin C solely from their weight loss program, as a result of they haven’t any means to synthesize it. With blood circulation to all tissues and organs, plasma ascorbate acid concentrations can attain as much as 10–160 mM (1–15 mg/ml) after consuming a vitamin C weight loss program, and the superfluous vitamin might be excreted by the kidneys (Richelle et al., 2009). Nonetheless, there are massive variations within the ranges of vitamin C in numerous organs; for instance, the mind, liver, and skeletal muscle have the best whole content material, and the content material of testis and thyroid is low (Omaye et al., 1987).

The pores and skin is the most important multifunctional organ on the floor of the human physique and consists of three layers: the dermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, which types an entire entire with pressure and elasticity because the physique’s first line of protection towards dangerous exterior components (Hunter, 1973). The dermis consists of keratinocytes and dendritic cells, and the stratum corneum can stop each dangerous substances and pores and skin moisture loss and is developed from keratinocytes and its lipid matrix (Tagami, 2008); the dermis gives diet for the pores and skin and is wealthy in blood vessels and nerve endings (Rittie and Fisher, 2015); and the connective tissue consists of collagen fibers and elastic fibers within the dermis, which maintains the strain and elasticity of the pores and skin (Carl and Enna, 1979). There’s a massive distinction within the content material of vitamin C within the layers of the pores and skin. The content material of ascorbic acid within the dermis is 425% greater than the content material within the dermis, and there’s a focus gradient of ascorbic acid within the epidermal keratinocytes (Shindo et al., 1994; Weber et al., 1999).

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It’s well-known that there are two transport mechanisms for ascorbic acid within the pores and skin, they usually depend upon sodium-ascorbate cotransporter-1 (SVCT1) and sodium-ascorbate cotransporter-2 (SVCT2). Dermal fibroblasts current two high-affinity and low-affinity vitamin C transport mechanisms, which can be associated to plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid or stress circumstances (Butler et al., 1991), demonstrating that pores and skin vitamin C transport traits could also be related to pores and skin therapeutic, antioxidation, and antitumor results. Sodium-ascorbate cotransporters (SVCTs), particular sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, exist in numerous tissues and organs for vitamin C uptake and transport. SVCT1 is primarily chargeable for the transport of epidermal vitamin C, whereas SVCT2 is chargeable for intradermal transport, each of that are proven in Determine ​Figure11. SVCT2 in dermal cells (resembling fibroblasts) diffuses ascorbic acid transported from the plasma into the dermis, and SVCT1 within the dermis provides ascorbic acid to keratinocytes (Steiling et al., 2007). The SVCT2 transporter in fibroblasts within the dermis transports vitamin C from the blood into the cells (Steiling et al., 2007). If SVCT2 is contained in the fibroblasts, it may bind to Mg2+ however is in a low-affinity state. However, when SVCT2 is uncovered on the fibroblast membrane floor, it may bind to each Mg2+ and Ca2+ in excessive concentrations of sodium answer after which turns into a high-affinity state and binds to vitamin C (Savini et al., 2008). Vitamin C might be transported into the cell after binding to SVCT1 on the membrane of keratinocytes, and vitamin C and Na+ are reversed on the cell membrane at a 1:2 ratio after which discretely distributed in epidermal keratinocytes (Wang et al., 2000; Steiling et al., 2007; Savini et al., 2008). The expression of SVCT1 mRNA in mouse pores and skin below UVB irradiation confirmed time- and dose-dependent results, whereas the SVCT2 mRNA ranges didn’t change considerably, which appears to elucidate why the antioxidant capability of the dermis is larger than that of the dermis (Kang et al., 2007).

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The Position of Vitamin C in Pores and skin

Vitamin C is concerned within the formation of the pores and skin barrier and collagen within the dermis and performs a physiological position within the pores and skin towards pores and skin oxidation, in antiaging of wrinkles, and in cell sign pathways of cell progress and differentiation, that are associated to the incidence and growth of assorted pores and skin illnesses (Ponec et al., 1997b). Vitamin C has a twin position of antioxidation and pro-oxidation, and this position maintains the stability of the 2 reactions within the physique (Kim Ok. et al., 2015). Ascorbic acid and transition metals, resembling Fe2+, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) outdoors of the cell, and excessive ranges of ROS can destroy the antioxidant protection system of most cancers cells (Ohno et al., 2009; Conner et al., 2012) as a result of the antioxidation system of tumor cells is incomplete and its stability is destroyed (Kim Ok. et al., 2015; Uetaki et al., 2015). Excessive ranges of Vitamin C within the cells result in oxygen-promoting reactions, which trigger DNA harm, the depletion of ATP reserves, and failure of mobile metabolism (Tian et al., 2014). Vitamin C can also be concerned in resistance to UV-induced oxidative stress, inhibition of melanogenesis, and promotion of the differentiation of keratinocytes and has been used for a very long time as a scientific therapy reagent. Vitamin C deficiency results in many systemic illnesses in people and causes scurvy on this planet’s navies (Carpenter, 2012).

 

Vitamin C-Associated Pores and skin Illnesses

The consequences of meals restriction on modifications in nutrient consumption and severity of the pores and skin illness have been investigated; with ascorbate as a prodrug in numerous pores and skin illnesses, scientific therapy methods for the right way to appropriately apply vitamin C have turn into of curiosity to many dermatologists. Herein, we summarize the applying of vitamin C as a therapy for a wide range of pores and skin illnesses, resembling porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), atopic dermatitis (AD), malignant melanoma, herpes zoster (HZ), and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), in clinic in line with well-known ranges of proof (Desk ​Table11).

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Conclusion – “vitamin c skin problems”

In conclusion, dietary methods recommend the potential advantages of a weight loss program wealthy in vitamin C as a preventive device for sufferers with pores and skin illnesses. Vitamin C has low toxicity, is straightforward to acquire, and has a low value. Due to this fact, if it may be utilized to scientific therapy in dermatology, the prospects needs to be very spectacular. Notably, vitamin C supplementation modulated inflammatory cytokine secretion, decreased metastasis of melanoma, diminished tumor progress and enhanced the encapsulation of tumors ensuing from a breast most cancers problem. Following these research, investigation into the affect of extreme meals limitations on progress, malnutrition, and pores and skin illness administration is required, and additional research ought to examine the huge and efficient therapeutic potential of vitamin C in dermatology. Though ascorbate supplementation in most cancers sufferers has been proposed to reverse their scorbutic signs and deal with their most cancers, dermatologists ought to take into accounts the potential dangers of the scientific use of vitamin C to attenuate the danger of therapy. As well as, the route of administration for using vitamin C ought to obtain extra consideration. It’s obligatory to extend the focus of vitamin C in peripheral blood intravenously to be poisonous to tumor cells. Since vitamin C is a water-soluble molecule and its transdermal absorption effectivity is low, it could be of nice significance to determine environment friendly transdermal drug supply strategies for the stabilization of energetic compounds, resembling discovering lipophilic derivatives of vitamin C to extend the absorption via the dermis. Thus, the scientific use of vitamin C in sufferers with pores and skin illnesses nonetheless requires warning.

 

Writer Contributions

HL contributed the conception. KW, HJ, WL, MQ, and TD analyzed the info. KW and HJ wrote the manuscript. HL and KW revised the manuscript.

 

Battle of Curiosity Assertion

The authors declare that the analysis was performed within the absence of any business or monetary relationships that may very well be construed as a possible battle of curiosity.

 

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