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vitamin k magnesium absorption

Osteoporosis is a progressive illness that impacts bone density and high quality, resulting in an elevated threat of bone fractures and reductions in high quality of life (1, 2, 3).

Bone is continually in a cycle of being damaged down and reformed. This course of is named bone transforming and requires an enough provide of sure vitamins (4).

Consequently, some might ponder whether sure dietary dietary supplements, along with an general nutritious diet, might assist stop and handle the illness.

This text examines the analysis behind 11 dietary supplements related to managing and stopping osteoporosis, together with any potential drawbacks.


1. Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important for bone well being. It performs a key function in calcium absorption and helps regulate bone turnover (5).

Given the restricted variety of meals sources of this vitamin, which incorporates fatty fish and fortified dairy merchandise and cereals, most individuals receive vitamin D via daylight publicity.

Nevertheless, getting enough quantities of vitamin D via daylight publicity might be tough throughout the winter and for individuals who spend nearly all of their time indoors (5).

Moreover, individuals who stay far north or south of the equator are at an excellent larger threat of vitamin D deficiency attributable to restricted solar publicity for as much as 2–5 months per yr.

One research together with 400 older adults discovered that folks with osteoporosis had been extra prone to be poor in vitamin D. Of these poor in vitamin D, every day consumption of a vitamin D complement was additionally linked to a decrease incidence of osteoporosis over 8 weeks (6).

That mentioned, whereas vitamin D dietary supplements could also be helpful for folks with vitamin D deficiency, analysis has not noticed advantages of vitamin D dietary supplements as soon as blood ranges are at or above sufficiency ranges (7, 8).

The present Reference Each day Consumption (RDI) for vitamin D is 600 IU for kids and adults ages 1–70 and 800 IU for pregnant or breastfeeding adults and people 71 years or older (9).

To scale back the danger of bone fractures and guarantee adequate blood ranges, analysis suggests {that a} dose of 400–800 IU of vitamin D per day could also be adequate (7, 10).

Curiously, one research together with 311 wholesome adults discovered excessive doses of 4,000 and 10,000 IU of vitamin D per day resulted in a larger lack of bone mass density over 3 years than taking a smaller 400 IU every day dose (10).

Nonetheless, whereas analysis suggests smaller doses could also be higher in the long run for bone density, increased doses could also be wanted briefly in additional extreme vitamin D deficiency instances.

On condition that it’s estimated that fifty% of the inhabitants has low ranges of vitamin D, it’s value speaking to a healthcare supplier when you’re involved about not getting enough vitamin D all year long (11).

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2. Magnesium 

Magnesium is a vital mineral that’s concerned in over 300 reactions in your physique. It’s additionally necessary for bone well being, with roughly 60% of this mineral being present in bone tissue (12).

The RDI for magnesium is 310–320 mg per day for folks ages 19–30 years and 400–420 mg per day for folks ages 31 and older. Wants are additionally barely elevated throughout being pregnant and breastfeeding (13).

One research in 51 postmenopausal girls discovered that 40% of ladies with osteoporosis or low bone density had low circulating magnesium ranges (14).

Moreover, a number of research in adults have discovered that people who eat increased quantities of magnesium via their food plan or dietary supplements have higher bone mass density than these consuming low quantities (15, 16).

Whereas enough magnesium consumption has been related to bone density advantages, analysis is combined on whether or not this profit interprets right into a decreased threat of bone fractures (15, 16, 17, 18).

As extra analysis is required on the function and optimum dose of magnesium dietary supplements on the danger of osteoporosis and bone fractures, it’s finest to give attention to consuming a food plan wealthy in magnesium-containing meals, akin to nuts, seeds, complete grains, and legumes (19).

Should you’re involved about assembly your magnesium necessities via food plan alone, it’s best to converse together with your healthcare supplier for personalised suggestions on magnesium dietary supplements.


3. Boron 

Boron is a hint aspect that has been discovered to play a crucial function in bone development and upkeep. It impacts using different vitamins wanted for bone well being, together with calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D (20, 21, 22).

At the moment, there’s no established RDI for boron. Nonetheless, primarily based on present analysis, it’s thought that 1–3 mg of boron per day could also be helpful (22).

An older research in postmenopausal girls discovered taking 3 mg of boron per day considerably decreased the excretion of calcium and magnesium within the kidneys (2, 22).

Moreover, one research in rats with osteoporosis discovered boron supplementation considerably decreased bone loss. Nevertheless, analysis confirming this impact in people is at the moment missing (23).

As dried plums are among the best dietary sources of boron, restricted analysis has examined the connection between dried plum consumption and bone density in people (24, 25, 26).

For instance, one research in 48 postmenopausal girls with low bone density discovered that consuming 50–100 grams of dried plums per day resulted in important bone density enhancements over 6 months (25).

Whereas the precise mechanism isn’t absolutely understood, it’s thought that the boron content material within the dried plums might partially clarify why these fruits have been proven to have advantages for bone well being.

Boron will not be commonly present in multivitamin dietary supplements. Consequently, it could be simpler to eat it via meals, together with prunes, raisins, and dried apricots.

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4. Vitamin Ok 

Vitamin Ok performs an necessary function in sustaining bone power and stopping bone breakdown. Low ranges of vitamin Ok have been related to an elevated threat of bone fractures and low bone density (27, 28, 29).

There’s at the moment no outlined RDI for vitamin Ok. As a substitute, the enough consumption (AI) for adults over 18 is about at 90 mcg per day for ladies and 120 mcg per day for males (30).

Whereas analysis suggests a protecting impact of enough vitamin Ok consumption on bone density and fractures, it’s inconclusive whether or not vitamin Ok dietary supplements shield bone well being (31, 32, 33).

On condition that extra analysis is required on the function of vitamin Ok dietary supplements on osteoporosis and associated fractures, it could be finest to eat meals wealthy in vitamin Ok, akin to leafy greens, broccoli, and Brussel sprouts.

It’s necessary to notice that vitamin Ok can intervene with a number of drugs, together with blood thinners like warfarin. Consequently, it’s necessary to speak together with your healthcare supplier earlier than taking vitamin Ok dietary supplements (33).


5. Soy isoflavones  – “vitamin k magnesium absorption”

Isoflavones are a category of antioxidants sometimes called phytoestrogens. They’ve a construction much like that of the hormone estrogen and might connect to and activate estrogen receptors in your physique (34).

Throughout menopause, estrogen ranges within the physique decline. This drop in estrogen can result in bone being damaged down sooner than it may be fashioned, leading to an elevated threat of osteoporosis (35, 36).

Analysis means that soy isoflavones might assist fight this lack of calcium from the bone and cut back the speed of bone turnover (37).

One overview of 19 research in postmenopausal girls discovered soy isoflavone consumption via dietary supplements considerably elevated bone mineral density by 54% and decreased bone resorption marker by 23%, in contrast with their baseline values (38).

Equally, one other overview of 52 research confirmed important bone density enhancements with soy isoflavone supplementation in research lasting for no less than a yr (39).

Whereas promising, it’s necessary to notice the big variability within the dosage and complement type used between research. Consequently, the recommended dosage primarily based on present analysis is sort of broad.

It’s at the moment thought that 40–110 mg of soy isoflavones per day for no less than a yr might assist fight bone loss and shield in opposition to osteoporosis (37).

Understand that extra analysis is required on variations in dosage necessities throughout numerous age teams and ethnicities, the period of supplementation, and the shape used.


6. Calcium

Calcium is a serious element of bone tissue and important for bone power and construction. In reality, roughly 99% of your physique’s calcium is saved in your skeleton (4).

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The present RDI for calcium ranges from 700–1200 mg per day, with elevated wants throughout sure life phases, together with childhood and adolescence, being pregnant and lactation, girls over the age of fifty, and all adults 70 years or older (40).

Whereas enough calcium consumption all through your life is necessary for bone well being, analysis on the potential advantages of taking calcium dietary supplements for the prevention and administration of osteoporosis is combined (41, 42, 43).

One overview of 8 research discovered calcium plus vitamin D dietary supplements had been linked to a 15–30% decreased threat of fractures in each community-dwelling and institutionalized middle-age and older adults (44).

Nevertheless, one other overview of 33 research discovered that calcium dietary supplements — both on their very own or together with vitamin D — weren’t related to a decreased threat of fractures in older adults dwelling at dwelling, in contrast with a placebo (45).

Equally, a overview of 59 research discovered that growing calcium consumption via both dietary supplements or meals sources resulted in small however not clinically significant enhancements in bone mass density (46).

General, whereas calcium dietary supplements could also be acceptable for people who’re at an elevated threat of deficiency, there’s at the moment inadequate proof to suggest calcium dietary supplements to stop or handle osteoporosis within the common inhabitants.

Potential issues with calcium dietary supplements

There are some issues about taking giant doses of calcium through dietary supplements.

For instance, calcium dietary supplements have been related to signs like constipation, kidney stones, and different digestive points. There are additionally some issues that they might be unhealthy for coronary heart well being (43).

One overview discovered an elevated threat of coronary heart assaults in these taking calcium dietary supplements. That mentioned, different research haven’t proven a hyperlink between calcium dietary supplements and destructive outcomes for coronary heart well being (43, 47, 48, 49).

As dietary consumption of calcium has not been linked to those uncomfortable side effects, it’s finest to give attention to assembly your calcium wants via your food plan and discussing the potential want for dietary supplements together with your healthcare supplier.


7–11. Different dietary supplements 

A number of hint minerals and parts play important roles in bone well being and should help bone density and cut back the danger of fractures. They embrace:

Whereas it’s necessary to get enough quantities of those minerals in your food plan, extra analysis is required on whether or not these dietary supplements may also help shield in opposition to osteoporosis and associated fracture threat.

A number of natural dietary supplements are additionally utilized in various drugs to assist deal with osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of those dietary supplements in people will not be at the moment supported by analysis (59).


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